Memoirs of Tong Xiaopeng -7

2022-05-21 0 By

Liu Ding was very surprised and asked Zhang Xueliang what was wrong.’I thought it over for a few days, but now I’ve made up my mind,’ Mr. Zhang said.In front of them were the powerful Japanese, and behind them were Jiang Jun, who was even venomous than snakes.There are many young and promising men in my ranks, but there are also many who are old and overbearing, who have serious misgivings, and some who are timid and dangerous and have ulterior motives. It is very difficult to deal with them, and it is very difficult to get them to join forces against Japan!It is useless to badger them, so let them go.It is better to take the initiative now than to be passive in the future, so that we can reserve maximum strength for resistance.I’ve had a talk with Mr. Zhou, and we know each other well. Why don’t you join us and let our hands go? There’s a lot we can do.”I thought it was possible to persuade Chiang Kai-shek to unite against Japan, but now it is not easy.He’s one of his own, selfish at the expense of others, too sinister.I thought it over for a while, with seldom a good result.It would be better to join you openly and with a clear banner for two years. We are sure to make great achievements. Then we can force him to resist Japan more forcefully.”Liu Ding immediately returned to Xi ‘an and reported to the Party Central Committee with an urgent secret telegram.At this time, the central party organs have just withdrawn from The Vaayaopao, is moving to the security.After the central government got liu Ding’s telegram, MAO Zedong, Zhang Wentian and Zhou Enlai arrived in Ansai city on July 5.This is a small county with more shit than a security guard.Liu Ding took Zhang Xueliang’s special plane to Fushi, then walked 50 miles to Ansai.The central committee immediately convened a meeting attended by MAO Zedong, Zhang Wentian and Zhou Enlai.Li Kenong also attended the meeting.Liu Ding reported to the central Zhang Xueliang’s requirements and the northeast army internal situation;Zhang xueliang had established contacts with yan Xishan in Shanxi, Song Zheyuan in Hebei, sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Shandong and other local forces.After the all-night report and discussion, MAO Zedong finally said, “The Northeast army is in the position of the dead families living in the northwest of the provinces. It is completely possible for the Northeast army to change from a tool of” bandit suppression “to an anti-japanese army due to our party’s efforts against them.””Zhang Xueliang dared to have an interview with Zhou Enlai in Fushi and go back to publicize the Anti-Japanese War as a good thing.It was not easy to train anti-japanese backbone and propagate anti-japanese ideas in the northeast warlord army.It is to be expected that some senior officers are ideologically illogical, even opposed.It is not surprising that Zhang xueliang encountered this problem.With the development of the situation, the Northeast Army was divided. Zhang Xueliang was ready to join the Red Army. This was a great change.””Instead of disintegrating or splitting the Northeast Army or turning it into the Red Army, our Party will help, unite and transform it into an anti-japanese and national saving force and a reliable and friendly force of the Red Army.Therefore, we do not approve of Zhang Xueliang’s troops working with the Red Army.This is not to strengthen but to weaken the anti-Japanese forces. We must do more explaining to Zhang Xueliang, tell him not to be impatient, do solid work, unite more people, and win the entire Northeast army into the anti-Japanese camp.””At present Chiang Kai-shek is busy dealing with the Guangdong-Guangxi incident, but he will not sit idly by and watch the Northeast army raise the anti-japanese banner.Tell Zhang Xueliang not to fall out with Chiang Kai-shek, but to speak strategically and not to provoke him too much. From the overall point of view of building up anti-japanese forces throughout the country, we should be more patient with Chiang Kai-shek, and persuade him to resist Japan and prepare for a greater struggle.”Zhang Wentian and Zhou Enlai agreed with MAO Zedong and asked Liu Ding to convey the opinions of Chairman MAO and the CPC Central Committee to Zhang Xueliang, do more explaining work and continue to help Zhang Xueliang do the work of training and uniting cadres.MAO Zedong talked with Liu Ding alone after the meeting.He said: “At present our party’s policy towards the Northeast Army is to strive for unity and unite against Japan.Anything that does not conform to this policy is wrong.To do zhang Xueliang’s own work, do the work of uniting the Northeast army, make the Northeast army into a real anti-japanese force.Don’t be afraid of being young or inexperienced. We are all doing Zhang Xueliang’s work!The central government supports you.Liu Ding, you should be a good representative!”When Liu Ding returned to Xi ‘an, he met Zhang Xueliang and told him in detail about the ansai Central Conference.He said, “The principal officials of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China attended the meeting and studied it all night. They spoke highly of your determination and enthusiasm for resisting Japan. However, the time for your idea is not yet ripe.Zhang Xueliang listened patiently and said he understood what the CPC Central Committee meant.”From now on,” he said, “I will try my best to persuade Generalissimo Chiang to join the anti-Japanese camp.I have a deep friendship with the Chairman, and I will earnestly use this position to speed up my advice to him and try to persuade him to realize his mistake.If the central committee of the Communist Party of China wants me to do this, I will not hesitate even if I am rejected, or if I have my post cut off for the people, or even if I have my head cut off in prison!”Zhang Xueliang also talked with Liu Ding about the reform of the Northeast army.He advocated strengthening the leadership and promoting a number of young officers.He added, “In the past, some people said that the Communists were trying to eat up the Northeast Army, and that they were trying to eat up the stomach of a gentleman with the heart of a petty man. It was common for kuomintang troops to undermine each other and annex each other.From now on, work boldly, and I’ll back you up.”Liu Ding reminded Zhang Xueliang, it is not easy to fight for Chiang Kai-shek unity anti-japanese, at the same time to beware of the Kuomintang spy destruction.Zhang Xueliang accepts the opinion of the Central committee of the Communist Party of China, pay close attention to undertake transformation to the army, unity works, personally to the army, division commander talks about the truth of unity anti-japanese respectively, reveal according to different object the thought that unites in all anti-japanese, force Jiang anti-japanese.Zhang xueliang take every opportunity to Chiang kai-shek states, advised him to anti-japanese, however, Chiang kai-shek whatever zhang xueliang advice to no avail, and personally to xi ‘an to persecute zhang xueliang and Yang stepped up to the northern shaanxi, “suppress” the red army or the weighing up to 17, fujian, route army transferred to anhui, give the central army, but so do dungans provinces by the central army “communist suppression”.Although Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng repeatedly “expostulated bitterly”, even “expostulated bitterly”, Chiang Kai-shek remained obstinate.Liu Ding according to the guidelines of the Party central Committee, policy, in the fight for and help Zhang Xueliang and northeast army work, made outstanding contributions.MAO Zedong once evaluated that liu Ding was meritorious in fighting for the Northeast army.In order to further help Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng to promote the transformation of the Northeast army and northwest Army and carry out the anti-japanese national united front work in all aspects, the CPC Central Committee sent a group of cadres to Xi ‘an in September 1936, including Ye Jianying, Pan Hanian, Zhu Lizhi, Wang Feng, Peng Xuefeng, Bian Zhangwu and Wu Zili.Ye Jianying as a representative of the Red Army lived in zhang Xueliang guard two battalion commander Sun Mingjiu’s home, external alias “Mr Yang”, is zhang Xueliang’s guest.At the same time, he directly led the Northeast army and the secret organization of the Communist Party of China in the Northwest Army on behalf of the CPC Central Committee, and had direct contact with some upper united Front relations.Liu Ding, who had lived in Zhang xueliang’s residence, became his right-hand man.Pan hannian returned from Moscow and arrived in August via Shanghai, Nanjing and Xi ‘an.On behalf of the Party, he met with Kuomintang representative Zhang Chong in Shanghai and Nanjing to exchange views on improving relations between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party and preparing for joint resistance against Japan.He made a report to the CPC Central Committee in security, the central government asked him to go to Xi ‘an to assist Ye Jianying work for a period of time, still to Nanjing, Shanghai, according to the instructions of the CPC Central Committee to continue to talk with the Kuomintang representatives.Before he left, with zhou enlai, ye jianying Pan Hannian talk together, to meet pan to xian zhang xueliang, because of zhang of the communist international to the problems of China’s anti-japanese attitude is concerned, can be the attitude of the international concern about China’s anti-japanese national united front against him, and with zhang to discuss how to work together for the center with the kuomintang (KMT), and through the relationship between the Soviet union.Pan left for Shanghai immediately after his visit to Xi ‘an.Zhu Lizhi was a communist party correspondent, leading the Party’s secret organization in the Northeast Army, the Northeast Army Working Committee (secretary Liu Lanbo).In December 1935, Wang Feng was instructed by the CPC Central Committee and met with Yang Hucheng with a letter from MAO Zedong to negotiate cooperation between the two sides.The central asked him to xi ‘an to help Yang Hucheng transform the Northwest Army, leading the work of the underground party in the Northwest Army.Zhou Enlai asked Wang Feng to tell Yan Kui (the commander of the 17th Route Army, a secret member of the Communist Party of China) that there should be no “left” actions or insurrection in Yang Hucheng’s troops.He was to be paid by the Kuomintang to do our work.We should tell clandestine Party members that they should be good at making friends and that they should be honest and secure in their official positions.To be sincere to people, more close to all aspects of the people.After a period of upper united Front work in Xi ‘an, Peng Xue-feng went to Taiyuan, Shanxi in October to carry out the upper united front work against Yan Xishan.Bian Zhangwu was a cadre of the Red Fifth Army corps after the uprising in Ningdu, Jiangxi province in 1931.He had a historical relationship with the Northwest Army, and he carried out the upper united Front work of the Northwest Army system under the leadership of Ye Jianying.Wu Zili was a cadre in the supply department of the CMC. He went to Xi ‘an to take charge of the procurement of military materials for the Red Army.Ye Jianying and a line of people disguised as the Kuomintang military committee with the Red Army negotiation delegation, after the security negotiations by Xi ‘an back to Nanjing.Bian Zhangwu, a burly man from Hebei province, disguised himself as a “commander” in charge of negotiations. He wore a high-class military uniform, a diagonal belt, long leather boots and a riding whip.Pan Hannian is the secretary, because he is from Shanghai, Nanjing to the security, so he put on the suit, hat, gold glasses, folder briefcase, a big secretary.He knew the situation of the Kuomintang areas and the army, and he could handle everything.Peng Xuefeng looks like a talented person, hang up a military belt, like an adjutant.Ye Jianying is a big man, do not let him come out, had to shave for many days, put on soldiers when “groom”.Of course, the “officers” did not mistreat him. They asked him to lead the horse where there were crowds, and let him mount the horse where there were no crowds in the gully.The rest of them dressed as Kuomintang soldiers and served as “soldiers”.Li Kenong sent traffic Wang Liren and several Red Army escort.In the Soviet area, both the masses and the Red Army soldiers were surprised to see them. Some thought they were captives who were explained to have been sent by the Kuomintang in Nanjing. They were also glad that the KUOMINTANG and the Communist Party had started negotiations.They went to Zhiluo town northeast army Liu Duoquan division of the defense, liu Duojian received.Bian Zhangwu and Pan Hanian were received as distinguished guests and ate very well, including oranges. The other “attendants” lived in Ma Hao.When Liu Duo-quan (comrade Liu Lan-bo’s brother) found out that the “secretary” was giving the “groom” oranges, and that the “officer” and “soldier” were not in the same relationship as kuomintang officers and soldiers, he took it into his own hands and gave them equal treatment.Liu Duoquan had long had relations with the Red Army, so he would not inquire about it.But there was one small flaw in the play.From then on, they made a strict distinction between “officers” and “soldiers”.After arriving in Xi ‘an, they kept secrets strictly according to their respective tasks and connections.As Sun Mingjiu recalls;”The deputy commander (Zhang Xueliang) handed over the Red Army representative to me to live in my house to ensure his absolute safety.The representative was elegant and scholarly, and called him only Mr. Yang.It turned out that he was the famous General Ye Jianying.”Ye Jianying has rich experience and struggle experience in politics, of course, the performance is very successful.Ye Jianying brought a letter from MAO Zedong and Zhou Enlai to Zhang Xueliang, hoping that General Zhang Xueliang would “convey our views to Mr. Chiang Kai-shek and make a decision as soon as possible, and exchange official representatives to negotiate specific conditions for armistice and resistance against Japan”.There is a point to clarify here.The central archives kept a draft of the Agreement between the Red Army and the Northeast Army to Stop the Civil War and Fight Together. MAO signed it under the Red Army’s representative money, but the Northeast Army’s money did not have Zhang xueliang’s signature.It’s September 22nd.I looked, it was my handwriting.I checked my diary at that time. It was copied by me in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (i.e. central Liaison Bureau) on the evening of September 20, 1936.The Central Archives had printed the draft as an agreement signed by MAO Zedong and Zhang Xueliang.The Party History Research Office of the CPC Central Committee also cited the Chronicles of the Sixty Years of the CPC (1982 edition) accordingly.I don’t think it can be a formal agreement, because Zhang Xueliang didn’t sign it, and I copied the draft with some modifications.If it is a formal text, it will be copied properly.When I asked Liu Ding about it in 1982, Liu ding said he had not seen the agreement.I asked Ye Jianying face to face, he also did not remember this written agreement.This matter has two possibilities: one is That Ye Jianying was brought to Xi ‘an to seek zhang Xueliang’s opinion, because in fact the northeast army and the Relationship between the Communist Party of China has been very close, major problems have been solved, do not have to sign a written agreement;Another possibility is that the central government can consider everything by Ye Jianying face to face with Zhang Xueliang negotiation, not to Xi ‘an.In any case, it is impossible to say that MAO Zedong signed a written agreement with Zhang Xueliang.When Ye Jianying was in Xi ‘an, he provided the central government with a lot of important information.As the united front relations between our party and the Northeast army and the northwest army became more and more close, the contradictions between Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng and Chiang Kai-shek became more and more acute, attracting Chiang kai-shek’s attention, and the kuomintang’s spy activities became increasingly intensified.Ye Jianying’s situation in Xi ‘an is more and more difficult, Zhang Xueliang always concerned about Ye Jianying, sun Mingjiu to ensure his safety.Ye Jianying also seldom go out activities.On October 22, Chiang kai-shek moved from Luoyang to Xi ‘an, forcing Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng to suppress the Communist party.After visiting the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang and Mount Huashan with great enthusiasm, he summoned Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng and clamoured arrogantly that he would exterminate all the Northern Shaanxi Red Army within three months, and that when Zhang and Yang had made all preparations to suppress the Communists, they would attack the northern Shaanxi Red Army.Zhang and Yang not only did not agree to continue the suppression of communists, but also formally proposed to Chiang Kai-shek to stop the civil war and jointly resist Japan.Chiang kai-shek severely reprimanded Zhang and Yang, declaring that he would “never talk about the Anti-Japanese War until the red army had been killed and the Communist bandits captured.”He personally delivered a lecture to the Officers’ training corps of Wang Qu, insisting on his reactionary policy of “reining in foreign countries before settling in” and exerting pressure on zhang and Yang’s subordinates.The political air in Xi ‘an is becoming more and more tense.Zhang Xueliang soon informed ye Jianying of his and Yang Hucheng’s talks with Chiang Kai-shek.Ye immediately reported to the central government.In view of the tense situation, on October 29, Ye Jianying asked for instructions to the central government and planned to leave Xi ‘an after three days to return to the security detail report.In early November, the central government called back to agree to Ye Hui security.Ye told Zhang Xueliang, the central asked him to return to the security meeting.Zhang instructed Sun Mingjiu to send cars and guards to escort Ye safely out of Xi ‘an to Luochuan, and luochuan’s Northeast army was responsible for the escort to the Red Army garrison.Ye Jianying returned to security, the political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China reported Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang, Yang Hucheng talk and Chiang Kai-shek “into the suppression” of the Red Army’s military deployment, the Northeast army, the northwest army and the local forces and so on.The Party Central Committee affirmed the achievements of him and Liu Ding.Ye Jianying successfully completed the task given to him by the Party Central Committee.When the politburo meeting is in progress, confidential information section chief Ye Zilong sent zhang Xueliang sent an urgent telegram, said the situation in Xi ‘an is very critical, please Mr. Ye immediately come to Xi ‘an, discuss plans.Ye Jianying left the security line is in early December, after a few days to trek to 鄜 county junction, “Double 12” incident has occurred, the central asked him to return to Yan ‘an, waiting for the plane to fly to Xi ‘an, with Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu and other to shoulder more important tasks.